University of Hull Harvard Referencing

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University of Hull Harvard Referencing

University of Hull Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing

If you Google ‘Harvard Referencing’ you will find that every university has its own guide and that they all differ slightly in terms of punctuation, formatting and the order of information. ‘Harvard Referencing’ refers to any referencing style that uses the author name and year of publication within the text to indicate that information or ideas have been sourced from elsewhere. For this reason it is sometimes referred to as ‘Author Date’ referencing. This guide gives University of Hull students definitive examples of how to reference different materials using Harvard referencing for all their submitted work.

If you prefer, a pdf version of this information can be downloaded here:

Harvard Referencing.pdf

Quick Reference Guide (Common Reference Types)

This is the standardised referencing system to be used by all departments, faculties and schools at the University of Hull who ask their students to use the Harvard referencing system. Use these guidelines when referencing manually. We do, however, recommend that all students learn how to use bibliographic software (EndNote or Refworks). Please see our Bibliographic Software pages for more information.

Citing references within your text

When using a Harvard referencing style, the in-text citations need to indicate who was the author or producer of the work you are citing and what year it was published or created. If you have provided a direct quotation, you will also need to include the page number (see ‘Direct quotations’ and ‘When to include page numbers’ below). This information is given in parentheses (round brackets) as follows:

Author(s) mentioned directly in sentence:

When an author name is included within your text the name is followed by date of publication in brackets:

Robinson (2001) suggests that Western culture has an obsession with academic achievement and fails to recognise the worth of creative ability.

Author(s) not mentioned in sentence:

When the author name is not included in the text their surname and date of publication are added in brackets at the end of the associated point. The author and date need to be separated by a comma. If this is at the end of a sentence, make sure the citation is placed before the full stop:

Storytelling activates the brain’s insular cortex and allows us to experience sensations such as excitement or disgust (Widrich, 2012).

Please click on the appropriate section below for more rules you need to follow for in-text citations:

Compiling the reference list

The reference list appears at the end of your document and is a full list of the works you have referred to within your written text. It should be in alphabetical order by surname (or citation entry if some names were not known). References should be typed using single line spacing with a clear space between each reference. Indentation in not necessary.

Some departments may ask for a full bibliography, which would also include any works that you have consulted in the process of writing the piece but have not referred to directly. However this is not usually the case so please check with them if you are unsure. Sometimes you can just add an “Additional material consulted” section after your reference list to avoid confusion.

You will find below information about how to reference nearly all possible types of material. If there is anything missing, please contact us on and we will advise you personally and then add the information to this page.

Books (print and electronic)

Articles (journal, newspaper and magazine)

Official Governmental and NGO documents

Other documents

Online sources (see also Audiovisual etc below)

Images, artwork and maps

Audiovisual sources


Live performances

Personal communications etc

Anything else