University of Hull Footnote

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University of Hull Footnote

University of Hull Footnote

Footnote Referencing

There are several different types of footnote referencing (Oxford, Chicago etc) and every university has its own guide that differs slightly in terms of punctuation, formatting and the order of information. This guide attempts to give definitive examples of how to reference different materials using footnote referencing here at the University of Hull.

If you prefer, a pdf version of this information can be downloaded here:

Footnote Referencing.pdf

Quick Reference Guide (Common Reference Types)

This is the standardised referencing system to be used by all departments, faculties and schools at the University of Hull who ask their students to use a footnotes referencing system (with the exception of Law who use the standard OSCOLA system). Use these guidelines when referencing manually. We also recommend that all students learn how to use bibliographic software (EndNote or Refworks) over the course of their studies to make their referencing more efficient.

Please see our Bibliographic Software pages for more information.

Basic rules of Footnote referencing

When using footnote referencing, information from another source is indicated in the text by using a superscript number after the relevant text.1 This should come after the relevant punctuation mark (usually the full stop but it could be a comma, colon or semi-colon if you are referring to several sources within a single sentence). At the bottom of the page, the number is repeated with the reference given. This is usually achieved in Microsoft Word by using the ‘Insert Footnote’ option on the References tab. If you use this function the numbers will be automatically generated and updated. Other word processors will have equivalent functions.

The amount of information that you give in the footnote is dictated by whether it is the first time you have referred to a source or not (see below).

A full bibliography is then given at the end of the document with the references in alphabetical order by surname.


1 This is an example of a footnote.

Referencing templates and examples

You will find below information about how to reference nearly all possible types of material. Examples are given for full footnotes, short footnotes and bibliography entries. If there is anything missing, please contact us on and we will advise you personally and then add the information to this page.

Books (print and electronic)

Articles (journal, newspaper and magazine)

Official Governmental and NGO documents

Other documents

Online sources (see also Audiovisual etc below)

Images, artwork and maps

Audiovisual sources


Live performances

Personal communications etc

Anything else

General enquiries

University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull, HU6 7RX, United Kingdom

Telephone: +44 (0)1482 346311

Fax: +44 (0)1482 346511