University Of Greenwich Referencing

By | 12th June 2017

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University Of Greenwich Referencing

The University of Greenwich, as with all universities, requires that students give credit to the authors of the evidence they use to support the arguments within their essays and other assignments. Many schools within the University require that students use the Harvard system of referencing (citation). This is a guide to that system giving some useful examples to which you can refer when referencing yourself.

Function 

A bibliographical reference should contain sufficient information for you or someone else to trace the information sources you have used.  It indicates that you have considered the appropriate authorities and evidence in connection with your work.  It acknowledges and gives credit to the work of others contributing to your work. N.B. You ought to follow the convention of referencing dictated by your school or tutor. This is normally the Harvard system, but may not necessarily so. Check!

Why do I need to reference?

Referencing is an important feature of academic writing. Any ideas, words or images which are not your own need to be referenced. There are a few reasons why this is so:

  • To support your arguments and give credibility to the information you present in assignments.
  • To enable your tutors to trace the sources you cite in order to check the accuracy and validity.
  • To enable your tutors and other interested readers to trace the source you cite and to use the same evidence for their own purposes.
  • To avoid the accusation of plagiarism.

University Of Greenwich Referencing

The components of the Harvard system

   The Harvard system has two main components. Firstly, there is the in-text reference. For each item of evidence that you use from an external source (a book, a journal article etc.) there is an entry that includes the author‟s family name and the year of publication of the source that the information comes from. Note that for a quotation, there will also be the number of the page that the quotation came from ()see the section on quoting below).

The in-text reference (author, year) works in conjunction with the second element of the Harvard system, which is known as a Reference List (sometimes inaccurately referred to as a Bibliography). This is an alphabetical list (by the author‟s last name and then the year of publication) which includes the full bibliographical details of the book which would enable the reader to find that source if they so wished. The in-text reference to the author‟s last name and the year of publication can be looked up in this list and the full details found. As you can see then, the system requires both the elements of an in-text reference and a reference list to work.

University Of Greenwich Referencing

Examples of how to do both elements are shown below

. N.B. Bibliographies are sometimes used in the Harvard system. However, the term properly refers to an extended list which refers to ALL the books you consulted rather than just those you referred to in your assignment. Citations in the text (in-text reference) 

All material taken from another writer‟s work should be acknowledged, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised.  Not referencing = Plagiarism  Plagiarism = a fancy word for stealing