University of Exeter History Referencing

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University of Exeter History Referencing

University of Exeter History Referencing

A source should be given a full reference the first time it is cited. After the first mention, references to the source in the notes take a shortened form wherever possible. A shortened reference includes only the last name of the author and the short title of the book (containing the key word or words from the main title, so as to make the reference easily recognizable and not to be confused with any other work), followed by the page number of the reference. The full and shortened reference should include the following information for different types of sources, in the following forms:


Full reference: author’s or editor’s first name(s) or initials / author’s or editor’s surname / complete title (including subtitle, if any) / compiler or translator, if any / series title, if any / edition, if not the original / number of volumes, if applicable / place of publication and date of publication (in brackets) / volume number (preferably in roman numbers), if applicable / page number(s): single pages use p. and multiple use pp.

e.g. A. T. Runnock, Medieval fortress building, new edition, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1976), vol. I, pp. 135-7.

e.g. G. S. Rousseau and Pat Rogers (eds.), The enduring legacy: Alexander Pope, tercentenary essays (Cambridge, 1988), p. 44.

e.g. F. H. Behrends (ed. and trans.), The Letters and poems of Fulbert of Chartres, (Oxford, 1976), p. 20.

Short reference: author’s or editor’s surname (no first name or initials unless there is more than one author with the surname) / short title of the book / volume number, if applicable / page number(s)

e.g. Rousseau and Rogers (eds.), Enduring Legacy, p. 45.

In general, titles of two or three words should not be shortened,

e.g. Runnock, Medieval Fortress Building, p. 74.