University of Bolton Harvard Referencing
This web page is intended as a guide to Harvard referencing at the University of Bolton, please check with your tutor for the exact format required for your work.
The guide was revised and expanded in February 2016 to include examples of many more different sources. Some of the existing advice has been slightly amended, but does not differ significantly from the previous version. The main amendment is the removal of <> around URLs; most universities have dropped this practice. Some obsolete entries have been removed, such as Electronic Source and Sound Recording, and replaced with more specific examples reflecting the diversity of online resources and sound media. Media/format now appears consistently after the title in square brackets with no full stop. As well as examples of different sources, there is a further guidance section at the end which includes advice on common issues such as citing sources with multiple authors.
For further information on the revised and expanded Harvard Referencing section please watch the following video:
Citing In The Text
When you directly quote or paraphrase someone else’s work in your assignment, you must acknowledge the source by including the author’s/editor’s name/s and year of publication within the text. Click on the appropriate bar below for further information.
Paraphrasing or Summarising an Author
Citing a Citation
Citing the Author of a Chapter in an Edited Book
Citing In The Reference List Or Bibliography
Reference List Or Bibliography?
The reference list is an alphabetical list of all the sources you have cited (quoted or paraphrased) in your work. A bibliography is an alphabetical list of all of the sources that you have read for your assignment, regardless of whether you cited them or not. Even if you didn’t quote or paraphrase from a source, it still may have informed your thinking on the topic. Your assignment brief should tell you which list you need to include at the end of your work, i.e. a reference list, bibliography or both! If you are in doubt, see your tutor.
Print v Online
Examples of print and online sources have been included below, but if there isn’t a suitable online example, follow the general rule: [Online] is included after the title and replace Place of Publication: Publisher with Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].
If you have need to reference a source type that is not included in this list, try a ‘best-fit’ with a source with similar characteristics and check with your tutor. See the Common Issues section at the end for further guidance.
Act of Parliment – UK Legislation
Annual Reports/Company/Industry Reports
British Standard/International Standard
Case Law/Law Report
Command Paper (Government Publications including treaties, white papers, green papers, commission reports, inquiry reports, some statistics and annual reports)
Foreign Language Sources
Information Graphic – Image, Table, Diagram, Photograph, etc.
Lecture Notes or Handouts
Music – CD, Vinyl, Download, Online, Sheet Music, Live Performance
Social Media – Twitter, Facebook, etc.
Television or Radio Programme
Video Clip Online/YouTube
Work of Art (original)
Referencing: Common Issues
- Guide to Harvard Referencing [PDF]
This popular crib sheet includes commonly used sources.