Carol Kelly Edge Hill University

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Carol Kelly Edge Hill University

Carol Kelly Edge Hill University

Carol Kelly

Head Of Department at Edge Hill University

Warrington, United Kingdom
Higher Education
  1. Edge Hill University
  1. Edge Hill University,
  2. The Lister Hospital, Stevenage
  1. Edge Hill University



Carol Kelly

Full Profile


Dr Carol Kelly qualified as a registered nurse in 1983, she worked as a Respiratory Nurse Specialist and held senior clinical roles for several years. Based in higher education since 2003, Carol is currently Head of Applied Health & Social Care in the Faculty of Health & Social Care at Edge Hill University (EHU), Lancashire. Carol was awarded a PhD in 2014 for her work exploring perceptions of oxygen therapy from both patients’ and healthcare professionals’ perspectives. Her research interests concern respiratory care, in particular the needs and care provided to respiratory patients, and the impact that training, education and knowledge have on the provision and quality of that care. She has published widely on respiratory topics. Carol’s current research projects include: the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diagnoses in a UK prison; models of self-management for bronchiectasis patients; developing and testing an integrated care pathway for bronchiectasis; and identification of national research priorities for respiratory nursing. Carol is currently undertaking two Cochrane reviews concerning antibiotic use and self-management in bronchiectasis, and was member of the BTS (British Thoracic Society) Emergency Oxygen Guidelines Group, collaborating on the forthcoming update of the BTS Emergency Oxygen Guidelines. As a previous member of the Association of Respiratory Nurse Specialists (ARNS) Executive Committee, she continues to collaborate on several projects and is a keen advocate for respiratory nursing. She is Chair of the RNRC (Respiratory Nurse Research Consortium), a collaborative venture between ARNS (Association of Respiratory Nurse Specialists) & the Postgraduate Medical Institute (PGMI) at EHU, and has just co-edited a book: Preston W and Kelly C (2016) Respiratory Nursing at a Glance. Chichester: Wiley.


  • Edge Hill University

    PhD (Doctor of Philosophy), Health
  • Lancaster University

    MA, Professional Education
  • University of Hertfordshire

    Bachelor of Science (BSc), Specialist Nursing Practice
  • Prescot Girls’ Grammar School



  • Kelly C, Evans DJ, Chalmers JD, Crossingham I, Spencer S, Relph N, Felix LM, Milan SJ. Macrolide antibiotics for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD012406.

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows:

    To determine the impact of macrolide antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  • Kelly, C. A., Lynes, D., O’Brien, M. R. and Shaw, B. (2016), A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing? Patients’​ and Healthcare Professionals’​ Perceptions of Oxygen Therapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

    Clinical Respiratory Journal.

    Background: Despite emerging evidence and guidelines, poor prescribing and administration of oxygen therapy persists. This study aimed to explore healthcare professionals’ (HCPs) and patients’ perceptions of oxygen. Design: Semi-structured interviews with 28 patients and 34 HCPs. Findings: Three master themes uncovered: oxygen as a panacea, the burden of oxygen, and antecedents to beliefs. Patients used oxygen for breathlessness and as an enabler; they were grateful to oxygen and accepted it as part of the disease. HCPs used oxygen because it helps patients; it works; and it makes HCPs feel better. But oxygen is not benign and a burden is evident with potential antecedents to beliefs revealed. Summary: The findings suggest that a set of fixed beliefs regarding oxygen exist, influenced by several impacting factors. The perception that oxygen is a universal remedy presides, but is, at times, contradictory. These findings will raise awareness of entrenched cultures, influence future educational and research strategies, and inform policy.

  • Difficult Decisions: An IPA study of Healthcare Professionals’ Perceptions of Oxygen Therapy in Palliative Care. IN PRESS

    Palliative Medicine

    Background: The role of oxygen therapy to palliate dyspnoea is controversial. Without a clear evidence base oxygen is commonly prescribed, sometimes to the detriment of patients. This use of oxygen appears to be an entrenched culture the roots of which remain obscure.
    Aim: To explore Healthcare Professionals’ (HCPs) perceptions of oxygen therapy in palliative care.
    Design: IPA (interpretative phenomenological analysis) study utilising semi-structured interviews to explore beliefs and behaviours of HCPs regarding palliative oxygen therapy. Data were recorded, transcribed and analysed using IPA.
    Setting/Participants: 34 HCPs, including doctors, nurses, pharmacists and paramedics in the UK who were involved in prescribing, or administering, oxygen therapy to palliate dyspnoea.
    Results: Most HCPs in this study were well informed about oxygen therapy; all recognised the role of oxygen in palliative care setting as important. The overarching theme of compassion identified sub-themes of ‘comfort’, ‘do anything and everything’, and ‘family benefit’. The use of oxygen in the palliative care setting was not without its dilemmas however, as additional sub-themes of ‘controversy’, ‘doubt’ and ‘dependency’ illustrated.
    Conclusion: Findings suggest that oxygen therapy in palliative care poses an on-going dilemma for HCPs striving to provide optimum care. It seems patients and families often expect and welcome oxygen, but the perception of oxygen as a solution to dyspnoea can conflict with HCPs own doubt and experiences. There appears to be an emotional cost associated with this dilemma and the choices that need to be made.

  • How do health-care professionals perceive oxygen therapy? A critical interpretative synthesis of the literature.

    Chronic Respiratory Disease
  • Kelly, C. and Maden, M. (2014) How do respiratory patients perceive oxygen therapy? A critical interpretative synthesis of the literature. , 11 (4). pp. 209-228. DOI 10.1177/1479972314551561

    Chronic Respiratory Disease
  • Oxygen therapy: time to move on?

    Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease.
  • Kelly C (2013) P63 Patients’ and healthcare professionals’ perceptions of oxygen therapy: A qualitative study. Thorax. 2013; 68:A103

  • Lynes D and Kelly C (2013) Acute Oxygen Therapy in the Community. Nursing Standard. 27(21):63-68

  • McDonough B and Kelly C (2012) Developing a patient information leaflet for patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis using nebulised Colistimethate Sodium. Nursing Times108 (17): 12-14

  • Annandale J, Kelly C and Sherrington R (2011) P39 Nutritional assessments in COPD: the respiratory nurse perspective on current practice across the UK. Thorax. 66 (Supp 4): A83

  • Kelly C (2011) Palliative Care for respiratory Patients Nursing Standard.26(5):41-46

  • Kelly C (2011) Practice comment: “Respiratory strategy must be acted on if care is to be improved”. Nursing Times. 107(30): 11




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