Canterbury Christ Church University Harvard Referencing

Canterbury Christ Church University logo

Canterbury Christ Church University Harvard Referencing

Why reference

When writing assignments you may refer to ideas that have been written or produced by someone else. It is important that you acknowledge all the resources you have used and enable people who read your work to find these resources themselves. Failure to provide references may expose you to charges of plagiarism.

This guide will give you brief advice on how to reference commonly used resources using the Harvard Style. For a more comprehensive guide, with examples of many other types of reference sources, see this publication:

Parts of referencing

There are two parts to referencing – how to refer to a material in the text of your assignment (citations) and secondly, how to reference at the end of your assignment (reference list). The reference list includes only the sources that you cite in your text, a bibliography includes all material that you read in preparation for your assignment.

Citations in your text

Acknowledging ideas

In the text you should include the author’s or authors’ surname(s) followed by the date of publication in brackets, e.g. Smith (2005) states that it is important to consider…. Alternatively, you could include both the surname(s) and date in brackets e.g. It has been suggested that it is important to consider… (Smith, 2005).

If what you are crediting is a particular observation made at a specific point within the text, then you need to add the number(s) of the page(s) in question e.g. Smith (1995, pp. 49-50) states that it is important to consider.

Secondary referencing

If you have not actually read Smith (2005) but have only read about Smith’s ideas in Jones (2010), you should use the phrase ‘cited in’ e.g. It is claimed (Smith, 2005, cited in Jones, 2010, p.30) that….

If Jones uses Smith’s exact words, then Smith has been “quoted”—rather than “cited”—by Jones.