Arts University Bournemouth Harvard Referencing
While you are consulting an original work, you may come across a summary of another author’s work, which you would like to make reference to in your own document. This is called secondary referencing:
A direct reference: Research recently carried out by Brown (1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142) found that……..
In this example, Brown is the work, which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly for yourself. Bassett is the secondary source, where you found the summary of Brown’s work.
You would reference Bassett in your reference list, but not Brown. In the example below White is the primary or original source and Black is the secondary source. It is important to realise that Black may have taken White’s ideas forward, and altered their original meaning. It is recommended that where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else’s interpretation of a work. White, (1990) as cited in Black (1994), suggests that; You would reference Black in your reference list, but not White. The reference list at the end of your document should only contain works that you have read.
Citing from websites
You can cite from a website in the same way that you would cite from any other resource. It can be difficult to ascertain the author of a website, if you can’t find an individual name use the name of the organisation or company to whom the website belongs. It can also be difficult to find out when the material was published. If there is a last updated date, or a date next to the copyright symbol at the bottom of the page use this, but if there is no indication of date no date (n.d.) should be put in brackets after the name. You will not need to use page numbers.
At the Edinburgh Fringe this year ‘the average cost of putting on a show is estimated at around £6,000’ (Geoghegan, 2010)